17 December 1999
Report of the Secretary-General submitted pursuant to
Commission resolution 1998/77
1. In its resolution 1998/77 of 22 April 1998, the Commission on Human Rights drew attention to the right of everyone to have conscientious objections to military service as a legitimate exercise of the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, as laid down in article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
2. In the same resolution, the Commission requested the Secretary-General to submit a report to the Commission at its fifty-sixth session on information collected from Governments, the specialized agencies and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations on recent developments in this field. In accordance with this request, the Secretary-General invited all States, by a note verbale dated 6 October 1998, to forward to him any comments or information that they might have on these issues. By 25 September 1999, replies had been received from the Governments of: Croatia, Cuba, Denmark, Finland, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Mexico, Singapore, Slovenia, Sweden, Turkey and the United States of America.
3. The present report summarizes the comments and information received.
[29 July 1999, English]
1. The conscientious objection to military service was first regulated in Croatia by the 1990 Constitution. Article 47 (2) of the Constitution reads “Conscientious objection shall be allowed to all those who, for religious or moral beliefs, are not willing to participate in the performance of military duties in the armed forces. Such persons shall be obliged to perform other duties specified by law.”
2. Article 81 (2) of the Defence Act establishes that a civil service conscript has, as a rule, the same duties as a military conscript, except that he does not carry weapons or use any force against others. Conscientious objectors can be engaged in a whole range of services including hospital work, rescue and relief operations, educational work, forestry protection and border control. Civil service is normally performed within the armed forces without carrying weapons, although it can also be performed at legal entities registered in Croatia on the list of the Minister of Defence.
Application for alternative service
3. Conscripts apply for civil service directly to the Civil Service Commission. The Commission consists of physicians, psychologists, representatives of the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Health and scientists who are appointed by the Ministry of Justice.
4. Since the decision of the Constitutional Court of 18 February 1998, a conscript can apply for civil service without any time limitation. This decision revoked the provision in the Defence Act that imposed a 90-day limitation from the date of entry in the military draft records.
5. The applicant must state credible religious or moral reasons for refusing to do military service and must solemnly undertake to perform civil service duties with due care. The Civil Service Commission must give its decision on the application within three months. An appeal to a civil court can be lodged against the Commission’s decision within 15 days and is considered by the Croatian Government Commission.
6. A conscript undertaking civil service may change his mind at any time after a decision of the Commission and be reassigned to military service. The applicant must inform the Commission of his decision in writing. The Commission will then repeal its decision ex officio. The conscript is then reassigned to military service for the standard period of military service minus the time spent in civil service. However, the conscript is obliged to attend military training for a period prescribed by law.
7. If a conscript having applied for civil service fails to respond to a call by the authorized body without justification, the applicant is deemed to have renounced the application for civil service. The decision of the Constitutional Court of 18 February 1998 revokes a provision of the Defence Act that prescribed a review of the civil service status in case of negligence or violation of discipline during the performance of civil service.
Access to information on alternative service
8. Information regarding a conscript’s right to apply for civil service must be forwarded to all conscripts upon entry on the list of draftees.
1. The performance of military service in Cuba is regulated by the National Defence Act (No. 75) of 1994. The country’s recruitment policy calls for the conscription of students when they have completed their secondary education. Provision is made for alternative service. Under article 67 of the Act, recruits can opt to enter the Juvenile Labour Army which constitutes a specialized force that works for economic, social and scientific development, the preservation of the environment and the rational use of natural resources.
2. As part of alternative service, conscripts are assigned to tasks of a non-military character although only after receiving training. Conscripts who have chosen to perform military service but who have religious beliefs that forbid them to handle weapons are exempted from carrying weapons and participating in combat units.
3. Conscripts who fail to perform obligations for unjustifiable reasons or reasons not stated at the appropriate time are liable to financial penalties of a non-criminal character.
4. In extreme cases, conscripts can be brought before civil and even criminal courts. Conscripts found criminally responsible for failing to perform military service may be convicted and sentenced to a minimum of three months and a maximum of one year of imprisonment. Of all the people called up during the reporting period, 1.5 per cent have been fined, a portion of which have also been sentenced to imprisonment.
Application for alternative service
5. Decisions for enlistment in military service are taken by recruitment commissions composed of State officials and representatives from the conscript’s place of residence, including representatives of non-governmental organizations. The commissions work with conscripts and their families with the aim of assigning conscripts to the most suitable places. Every year the commissions meet the expectations of only 85 per cent of conscripts; the remaining conscripts receive an explanation for the basis of decisions. Appeals from decisions of the commissions are possible on the grounds of legally justifiable reasons for refusing to do military service. Conscientious objection alone is insufficient.
Access to information on alternative service
6. The various choices of specialized fields within the armed forces and alternative service are publicized in the press and on radio and television. To obtain specific information, conscripts must obtain details by telephoning the Ministry of the Revolutionary Armed Forces.
The granting of refugee status to conscientious objectors
7. Cuba is not a party to the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees nor to its Protocol; however, it has accepted refugees on the grounds of conscientious objection to military service in their country of origin or residence.
1. Military service in Denmark is governed by the National Service Law (1980), as amended in 1992 and 1998. According to article 81 of the Danish Constitution, every physically fit man has to contribute in person to the defence of the country.
2. Article 2 of the Law provides for development service abroad and civilian service. Special service abroad requires special skills. Conditions for alternative service are stated in legal order No. 1089 of 1998. Status as a conscientious objector is granted to any person who objects to military service for reasons of conscience. Objection may be based on religious or ethical reasons although objection for political reasons is not accepted.
3. The length of alternative service is the same as for military service. In Denmark, the length of service varies from 3 days to 14 months.
Conditions of service
4. Service conditions are similar for military and alternative service. However, one difference is that military conscripts obtain a monthly salary whereas alternative service conscripts receive an allowance. No information was given as to the differing scales applied to each. Alternative service conscripts work in institutions according to agreement between the institutions and the conscientious objection administration. Institutions are generally chosen that are close to the homes of the conscripts. Alternative service conscripts cannot be employed in vacant jobs nor can they work in institutions that they are already attached to or in which they have already been employed.
Application for alternative service
5. Application must be made in writing stating the reasons for objection. The application should be submitted not later than eight weeks after receiving call-up papers. According to Law No. 394 of 1987, an application for reasons of conscience can also be submitted during service. The conscript must state when the conflict of his conscience started as well as the reasons for it and should prove in which way the conflict of conscience has been confirmed during the period of service.
Access to information about alternative service
6. Before being called up, conscripts receive an information leaflet describing the rules of compulsory service. The leaflet includes information on how to apply for alternative service and the length and type of work carried out. Information on alternative service is also included with call-up papers.
7. In the past, members of the Jehovah’s Witness organization have been sentenced to terms of imprisonment under Danish law for failing to appear for military service. In 1996, the Director of Public Prosecutions circulated notice No. 2/1996 stating that the failure to perform military service for reasons of conscience should be punished by a term of imprisonment corresponding to the length of the remaining term of service. This term should be suspended and replaced by a probationary term of one year with the proviso that the person in question does not commit an offence and is under the supervision of the Probation Service. The person in question must carry out community service for a maximum of 240 hours during the probationary term.
1. The possibility of conscientious objection to military service has been part of Finnish law since the first Act on the matter in 1931 (186/1931). Claims of conscientious objection are currently approved without inquiry.
2. Under present legislation, conscripts with a religious or ethical conviction are guaranteed two alternative ways of completing national service. First, a conscript can apply for unarmed service within the armed forces. The duration of unarmed service is 11 months (330 days) with potential refresher training of a maximum of 75 days. Second, a serviceman can apply for non-military civilian service, based on serious grounds of religious or ethical conviction prescribed in the Non-Military Service Act. Non-military service is performed in various locations under the supervision of the Finnish Ministry of Labour. The duration of non-military service is 13 months (395 days) with no refresher training prescribed. The duration of military service is set at 180, 260 or 362 days. Refresher courses might be required lasting from 40 to 100 days. No explanation was given concerning the reasons for differing lengths of service.
3. Unarmed service is carried out in barracks conditions, bound by military discipline and by restrictions on the use of time and absence from barracks. Non-military service is carried out in civilian conditions, usually in the service of the State. Maximum working hours are 40 hours a week.
4. Offences in the context of non-military service are set out in the Non-Military Service Act. If an alternative service conscript neglects his duties, a disciplinary measure in the form of a warning, overtime work or loss of daily allowance can be issued. A conscript who fails to enter service, terminates the service or hands in a written refusal to undergo service must be sentenced to imprisonment for a time corresponding to half of the remaining period of his service. The conscript may be put on probation if he expresses willingness to bring the service duty to an end.
Application for alternative service
5. A conscript can apply for non-military service either before or during military service. The application is made in writing. The application is non-contentious - neither the grounds for the application nor the personal conviction are interpreted in any way.
6. In 1998, 28,640 people performed military service, 66 people performed unarmed service and 2,418 people performed civilian service.
Access to information on alternative service
7. Section 37 of the Non-Military Service Act obliges the Ministry of Labour, the Centre for Non-Military Service, places of service and the military province headquarters to provide each conscript with adequate information about alternative service.
1. Article 31 of the Iraqi Constitution (1970) stipulates that military service is compulsory. Military service is regulated by the Military Service Act (No. 65) of 1969. Article 10 of the Military Service Act makes provision for exemption for military service for persons with special family circumstances or who are responsible for supporting their families.
2. Revolution Command Council Decree No. 145 of 1994 makes provision for various forms of alternative service of a non-combatant or civilian character which are non-punitive in nature.
3. The Military Draft Act (No. 40) of 1969 regulates the examination procedures under which fitness for military service is determined. Article 40 of the Military Service Act provides that any person who fails to present himself for the military service medical examination to determine his physical fitness and ascertain whether he is suffering from any contagious disease or disability that would preclude his enlistment for military service is liable to a fine ranging from 30 to 100 dinars. The fine is imposed after an investigation has been conducted.
1. The Permanent Mission of Kuwait informed the Secretary-General that: “The competent authorities in the State of Kuwait have stated that the question of conscientious objection to compulsory military service in the State of Kuwait applies in only a very small number of cases and poses no problem whatsoever since, from their early childhood, Kuwaitis are imbued with a spirit of patriotism and an eagerness to defend their territory, their heritage, their civilization and the things that they hold sacred and this spirit develops with them over time so that, when they reach the legal age for compulsory military service, they are fully ready, both psychologically and physically, to defend their country.”
2. It was also printed out that “compulsory military service does not consist solely in combat duties; there are many administrative, technical and clerical posts in which military service can be performed in a manner consistent with every person’s physical and mental aptitudes”.
3. The Permanent Mission of Kuwait also informed the Secretary-General that “(i)n the few cases in which objection is expressed to compulsory military service, most of the persons concerned are found to be suffering from psychological and nervous disorders and such cases are exempted from military service”.
[8 December 1998, Arabic]
1. There have been some cases of conscientious objection among followers of the Jehovah’s Witness faith which “in no way constitutes a refusal to perform compulsory military service”. These people are permitted to wear civilian clothes and are not obliged to perform acts that are contrary to their religious beliefs.
2. Legal action for refusal to carry out orders is taken against conscientious objectors only once.
1. Mexican legislation does not recognize the right to conscientious objection and military service is obligatory of all Mexicans by birth or naturalization.
2. Although Mexican legislation does not recognize the right to conscientious objection, the Ministry of National Defence is empowered under the Military Service Act and Regulations to exempt those persons who do not meet the requirements for military service, including on the grounds of physical, moral or social impediments as provided in article 10 of the Act and the Regulations.
3. Article 10 of the Act states: “The Regulations pursuant to this Act shall establish the grounds for complete or partial exemption from service in the armed forces, indicating the physical, moral or social impediments thereto and the manner in which they must be verified. The Ministry of National Defence is vested under this Act with the power to exempt from military service those who do not fulfil the requirements of national defence.”
1. The response of the Government of Singapore to the note verbale did not include any information regarding the legal arrangements concerning conscientious objection to military service. However, the response contested resolution 1998/77 as it failed to highlight the fact that article 29 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights are subject to the limitation of ensuring public order and the general welfare of the society.
2. In particular, the response noted that “(n)ational defence is a fundamental sovereign right under international law and an essential necessity for the preservation of nationhood. Where individual beliefs or action run counter to such a right, the right of a State to preserve the security of a nation must prevail.”
3. It continued: “Compulsory military service is a fundamental component of the national security of small countries. Whereas some States have the luxury of establishing a standing army, the reality is that compulsory military service is often the only way for small countries like Singapore to build up a credible national defence force to deter aggression.”
1. The right to conscientious objection to military service is guaranteed under article 123 of the Constitution of Slovenia which stipulates: “Any citizen who, because of his religious, philosophical or humanitarian belief, is not willing to perform military duty, shall be given the opportunity of participating in the defence of the State in some other manner.”
2. The Law on Military Duty (Part V, arts. 38-48) and the Law on Changes and Supplements to the Law on Military Duty (arts. 17-22) stipulate that the decision on recognizing the right to conscientious objection is taken by a commission made up of civilians as well as military officials.
3. Civilian service can be exercised in different institutions and its length is the same as for military service. Objection to military service may be voiced during the process of serving military service.
[30 June 1999, English]
1. Swedish defence policy is based on the concept of “Total Defence”. Total Defence consists of military service, civil defence service and general service. All men between the ages of 18 and 47 are liable for military service.
2. The right to conscientious objection is legally recognized in the Total Defence Service Act (1994). According to the Act, conscientious objection status is to be granted if “the use of weapons against others is so contrary to that person’s seriously held moral convictions that he will not fulfil his military service”. In this case, the conscientious objector may be assigned for substitute service within the civil defence service.
3. The length of civil defence service is the same as for military service. Substitute service still has a military character although the conscript has the right to refuse training that involves weapons.
Application for alternative service
4. Written applications concerning conscientious objection must be sent to the National Service Administration. If the application is made before the applicant is enlisted or within six months from the day when he obtained knowledge about a decision on enlistment, the application shall be approved without further investigation.
5. A person who is obliged to do military or civil service and who intentionally deviates or fails to report for this will be fined or sentenced to imprisonment for up to one year.
[19 January 1999, English]
1. The Republic of Turkey has a compulsory military service system. Article 72 of the Constitution defines military service as the right and duty of every Turkish citizen. The manner in which this service is performed or considered as performed, either in the Armed Forces or in the Public Service, is regulated by the Military Service Law No. 1111.
2. The Government of Turkey takes the view that conscientious objection to military service is not recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights nor the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The Government of Turkey has reservations on General Observation No. 22 (48) of the Human Rights Committee, as well as all resolutions adopted by the Commission on Human Rights concerning conscientious objection to military service.
3. The Government of Turkey considers military service as an important aspect of the principle of equality before the law. The Government believes that allowing any person or group to be excluded from performing compulsory military service would compromise the application of the law.
4. On this basis, the Government of Turkey dissociates itself from Commission on Human Rights resolution 1998/77.
[2 June 1999, English]
1. The right of persons to seek the status of conscientious objector to military service in the United States is established under the Military Selective Service Act and the Implementing Selective Service System Regulations.
2. Section 6 (j) of the Act states that nothing in the Act shall be construed to require a conscript to perform combatant training and service in the armed forces who is conscientiously opposed to participation in war by reason of religious training and belief. Religious training and belief does not include essentially political, sociological or philosophical views or a merely personal moral code.
3. Any claim for status as a conscientious objector to military service must be brought before the local board. If the claim is sustained by the local board, the conscript will be assigned to non-combatant service or shall, if he objects to the performance of non-combatant service, perform civil service.
Current status of military service
4. The United States does not currently have a draft. All young men turning 18 must register with the Selective Service System. During times of war in the past, the United States has drafted citizens into service. The last induction authority expired in 1973. No belief is legal justification for failure to register with the Selective Service System.
Applying for exemption from military service
5. As the United States does not currently have a draft, the Selective Service System will not classify registrants upon registration. If a military draft is instituted, classification will resume and a registrant who has been ordered for induction will be given an opportunity at that time to make a claim for classification as a conscientious objector.
6. Information on seeking status as a conscientious objector is available to all selective service registrants.
7. The procedure for obtaining conscientious objector status follows legal principles including an investigation, a hearing, means to present evidence in one’s own defence and the right to file a rebuttal to a recommendation against granting status. The final decision, which is made by service headquarters, is based on all evidence submitted.
8. Those seeking status as conscientious objectors must include in their application: (i) a description of the nature of the belief which requires the applicant to seek separation from the military or assignment to non-combatant training; (ii) an explanation of how his beliefs changed or developed including an explanation of what factors caused the change in or development of conscientious objection beliefs; (iii) an explanation of when these beliefs became incompatible with military service; (iv) an explanation of what in the applicant’s opinion most conspicuously demonstrates the consistency and depth of his beliefs; (v) information whether the applicant has ever been a member of any military organization or establishment; (vi) a statement of whether the applicant is a member of a religious sect or organization.
9. An application must be submitted indicating whether he refuses combatant duty. The application must include any items which the individual desires to submit in order to support his case. Prior to processing the application, he will be advised of the possible effects of discharge as a conscientious objector. This includes primarily the loss of benefits provided by the Department of Veteran Affairs.
10. The applicant is then interviewed by a chaplain who must submit a written opinion on the nature and basis of the applicant’s claim. The chaplain’s report must include reasons for his conclusions.
11. An investigating officer will then be appointed to conduct a hearing of the application. The investigating officer will usually be either a local staff judge advocate or legal officer. This hearing allows the applicant to present any evidence he desires in support of his application and allows the investigating officer to assemble all of the relevant facts in the case. If the applicant desires, he shall be entitled to be represented by counsel at his own expense. The hearing is informal in character and will not be governed by the rules of evidence employed by courts-martial except that all oral testimony presented shall be under oath. The applicant may submit any additional evidence that he desires and present any witnesses on his own behalf.
12. At the conclusion of the investigation, the officer will prepare a written report including all evidence, documentation and a summary of the testimony presented during the investigation. The officer will also form a conclusion as to the underlying basis of the applicant’s conscientious objection and the sincerity of the applicant’s beliefs. The investigating officer may then recommend the applicant be denied status as a conscientious objector, be given exemption from all military service, or exemption from all combative military service.
13. All of the material submitted by the applicant, as well as the report from the investigation, will be consolidated into a single record. A copy of the record will be furnished to the applicant at the time it is forwarded for a final decision. The applicant will be informed that he has the right to submit a rebuttal to the report within the time prescribed by the service concerned. The headquarters of the service concerned will make a final decision based on the entire record.
14. There are two types of non-military service open to conscientious objectors. A person who is opposed to any form of military service is asked to perform civilian service equal to the length of time inductees serve in the military in a job which contributes to the national health, safety or interests, as determined by the Director of Selective Service. The person whose beliefs allow him to serve in the armed forces in a non-combatant capacity becomes a member of the armed forces and is assigned to non-combatant duties without receiving any training in the use of weapons.
1. Most countries that reported on the situation of military service recognized the right to conscientious objection to military service, with the exceptions of Mexico, Singapore and Turkey. However, not all countries accepted a general right to object - some countries restricted the basis for objection to religious grounds only.
2. Similarly, most countries provided some form of alternative service of a non-combative character, although not always of a civilian character. Some countries include conscientious objectors in military service but do not force them to perform military tasks.
3. Few countries accepted claims of conscientious objection without inquiry. Most countries required the conscript to apply for alternative service to an authorized body. In most cases, the body could be described as independent.
4. Some countries do distinguish in practice between alternative service and military service conscripts, in particular in terms of remuneration and length of service. In some cases, conscripts could be subjected to imprisonment for not performing service, although this was generally the case only where the conscript refused to appear for service, of either a military or alternative nature.
5. Some countries reported that information on alternative service was made available to conscripts.
6. The global status of conscientious objection to military service is presented in the annex. A comparison with annex II to the previous report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.4/1997/99) demonstrates that the international situation with regard to military service appears to be static. The exception is Thailand, which halted military service in 1997. The other changes to the list are due to new information coming to light in the interim as opposed to any modification of national laws.
The following country information is updated from the 1997 report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.4/1997/99) with reference to B. Horeman and M. Stolwijk, “Refusing to Bears Arms: A World Survey of Conscription and Conscientious Objection to Military Service”, War Resisters’ International, September 1998.
Afghanistan It is not known if the Taliban has introduced legislation on conscription since it came to power.
Albania Conscription exists.
Algeria Conscription exists.
Angola Conscription exists.
Antigua and Barbuda No conscription.
Argentina There has been no compulsory military service since 1994.
Armenia Conscription exists.
Australia No conscription.
Austria Conscription exists.
Azerbaijan Conscription exists.
Bahamas No conscription.
Bahrain No conscription.
Bangladesh No conscription.
Barbados No conscription.
Belarus Conscription exists.
Belgium Conscription suspended on 31 December 1992; since 1 March 1995, the Belgian armed forces consist of professional volunteers only.
Belize No conscription.
Benin Selective conscription.
Bermuda Conscription exists.
Bhutan Information is unclear but it seems that selective conscription exists with village recruitment schemes. No legislation on the subject exists.
Bolivia Conscription exists.
Bosnia and Herzegovina Conscription exists.
Botswana No conscription.
Brazil Conscription exists.
Brunei No conscription.
Bulgaria Conscription exists.
Burkina Faso No conscription.
Burundi Conscription exists.
Cambodia No conscription.
Canada No conscription.
Cape Verde Conscription exists.
Central African Rep. Selective conscription.
Chad Conscription exists but is not enforced.
Chile Conscription exists.
China Conscription exists.
Colombia Conscription exists.
Comores No information was available.
Congo No conscription.
Costa Rica No conscription.
Côte d’Ivoire Conscription exists.
Croatia Conscription exists.
Czech Republic Conscription exists.
Democratic People’s Republic
of Korea Conscription exists.
Democratic Republic of the Congo Conscription exists.
Denmark Conscription exists.
Djibouti No conscription.
Dominica No conscription.
Dominican Republic Conscription exists although it is unclear if it is enforced.
Ecuador Conscription exists.
Egypt Conscription exists.
El Salvador The Salvadoran Constitution and the law on military service establish obligatory military service. In practice, since the end of the armed conflict in January 1992, military service has been performed on a voluntary basis.
Equatorial Guinea Conscription exists.
Eritrea Conscription exists.
Estonia Conscription exists.
Ethiopia No conscription.
Fiji No conscription.
Finland Conscription exists.
Gabon Conscription exists although it is unclear if it is enforced.
Gambia No conscription.
Georgia Conscription exists.
Germany Conscription exists.
Ghana No conscription.
Greece Conscription exists.
Grenada No conscription.
Guatemala Conscription exists but is not enforced.
Guinea Conscription exists.
Guinea-Bissau Conscription exists.
Guyana No conscription.
Haiti No conscription.
Honduras Conscription exists but is not enforced.
Hungary Conscription exists.
Iceland No conscription.
India No conscription.
Indonesia Conscription exists but it is not enforced.
Iran (Islamic Republic of) Conscription exists.
Iraq Conscription exists.
Ireland No conscription.
Israel Conscription exists.
Italy Conscription exists.
Jamaica No conscription.
Japan No conscription.
Jordan Conscription was suspended indefinitely in 1992.
Kazakhstan Conscription exists.
Kenya No conscription.
Kuwait Conscription exists.
Kyrgyzstan Conscription exists.
Lao People’s Democratic
Republic Conscription exists.
Latvia Conscription exists.
Lebanon Conscription exists.
Lesotho No conscription.
Liberia No conscription.
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Conscription exists.
Liechtenstein No conscription.
Lithuania Conscription exists.
Luxembourg No conscription.
Madagascar Conscription exists.
Malawi No conscription.
Malaysia No conscription.
Maldives No conscription.
Mali Selective conscription exists.
Malta No conscription.
Mauritania Conscription exists but is not enforced.
Mauritius No conscription.
Mexico Conscription exists.
Monaco No conscription.
Mongolia Conscription exists.
Morocco Conscription exists.
Mozambique Conscription exists.
Myanmar The Government claims that the armed forces consist of volunteers; however, the recruitment methods used have been described as a system of conscription.
Namibia No conscription.
Nepal No conscription.
Netherlands Conscription exists.
New Zealand No conscription.
Nicaragua No conscription.
Niger Selective conscription.
Nigeria No conscription.
Norway Conscription exists.
Oman No conscription.
Pakistan No conscription.
Panama No conscription.
Papua New Guinea No conscription.
Paraguay Conscription exists.
Peru Conscription exists.
Philippines Conscription exists.
Poland Conscription exists.
Portugal Conscription exists.
Qatar No conscription.
Republic of Korea Conscription exists.
Republic of Moldova Conscription exists.
Romania Conscription exists.
Russian Federation Conscription exists.
Rwanda No conscription.
San Marino No conscription.
Saudi Arabia No conscription.
Senegal Conscription exists but is not enforced.
Seychelles No conscription according to most sources.
Sierra Leone No conscription.
Singapore Conscription exists.
Slovakia Conscription exists.
Slovenia Conscription exists.
Somalia Conscription exists but is not enforced.
South Africa No conscription.
Spain Conscription exists.
Sri Lanka No conscription.
Sudan Conscription exists.
Suriname No conscription.
Swaziland No conscription.
Sweden Conscription exists.
Switzerland Conscription exists.
Syrian Arab Republic Conscription exists.
Tajikistan Conscription exists.
Thailand No conscription.
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Conscription exists.
Togo Selective conscription.
Tonga No conscription.
Trinidad and Tobago No conscription.
Tunisia Conscription exists.
Turkey Conscription exists.
Turkmenistan Conscription exists.
Uganda No conscription.
Ukraine Conscription exists.
United Arab Emirates No conscription.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland No conscription.
United Republic of Tanzania Conscription exists.
United States of America Conscription exists.
Uruguay No conscription.
Uzbekistan Conscription exists.
Vanuatu No conscription.
Venezuela Conscription exists.
Viet Nam Conscription exists.
Yugoslavia Conscription exists.
Zambia No conscription.
Zimbabwe No conscription.